Wednesday, March 2, 2016

"Moonlight at Florence" by Robert W. Little

"Moonlight at Florence" by Robert W. Little. Restored by Kathy Grimm

"Sunshine and Wind" by Charles Sims

"Sunshine and Wind" by Charles Sims Restored by Kathy Grimm.
        Charles Henry Sims (28 January 1873, Islington – 13 April 1928, St. Boswells) was a British painter of portraits, landscapes, and decorative paintings. Apart from his mainstream reputation, he is also considered an exponent of Outsider Art, as an artist whose work developed an idiosyncratic style through psychiatric disorder.
       Born in Islington, London, Sims was the son of a costume manufacturer. Initially apprenticed in the drapery business, he moved to art in 1890 and enrolled at the South Kensington College of Art, before moving to Paris for two years at the Académie Julian. In the need of bursaries to support himself, he moved back to London and enrolled at the Royal Academy School in 1893. In 1895 he was expelled. Read more...

Prints by Chandler

Photograph of George Walter Chandler.
       MR. CHANDLER is a young American artist who, although he has been etching no more than five years, has already won for himself an enviable position among modern etchers by the substantial merit of his prints.
       The artist, a native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, began his artistic career by entering the field of journalistic illustration in New York City during his early manhood.
       However, satisfying himself that his ambitions as an artist would never be fully realized as an illustrator only, he began traveling extensively, finally settling in Paris, where he became affiliated with the Julian Academy.
       In 1908 he was awarded an Honorable Mention at the Salon, and the same year a collection of his prints was taken by the City of Paris to be placed in the Petit Palais.
       Mr. Chandler, besides being an excellent draughtsman, understands thoroughly the technique of etching, the careful biting of the plate, the laborious and painstaking toil of printing the finished proof.
       During the last few years the artist has devoted himself more enthusiastically than ever to etching, as the decided strength and charm of his new plates abundantly prove.
       Among the thirty-seven prints we catalogue, all of which have the stamp of the artist 's personality expressed in a medium which seems especially adapted to the rendering of his ideas, we would single out as particularly worthy of mention, "The Minarets" and "The Burning Ghats — Benares," two plates which undoubtedly owe a large part of their charm to the suggestion of the mystery and mysticism of the Far East.
       Then there are bits of Old Rouen, such as the delightful "Portail de St. Maclou," and many plates inspired by the picturesqueness of the streets of the old town; also a variety of brilliant and harmonious plates of Paris, notably "Le Pont Neuf, " "Le Dejeuner" and " Aux Bords de la Seine."
       Among his Italian Series, his plates of the Ponte Vecchio, Florence, are among the most successful and popular.
       Although Mr. Chandler, as one may readily observe, has traveled for the most part in well-worn paths, it is not a twice told tale that he offers us, but a story and a picture that are quite his very own.
       With fresh vision he has confidently approached the traditional subjects, and the result has more than justified his choice. 
Burning Ghats, Benares, India by Chandler.
La Rue Ruissel, Rouen by Chandler.
Les Travaux du Metro, Paris by Chandler.
The Thames at Chelsea by Chandler.

Wistarberg or South Jersey-Type Glass

       The story of American glass is an important part of American history. Its emergence from European beginnings into a distinctive American art parallels the industrial and artistic development of the United States.
       American glassmaking was guided from its beginnings in the Seventeenth Century by trained craftsmen from Italy, Belgium, Holland, Germany, France, and England, and the traditions and technical practices of European glassmakers were brought to early American glasshouses. Although American glass in time took on characteristics which were distinctly American in expression, the industry continued to be guided throughout the two centuries of progress by these foreign trained artisans and their descendants down to the third generation.
       The real history of American glass started in the Eighteenth Century with the glassworks of Caspar Wistar near Allowaystown, Southern New Jersey, in 1739. Caspar Wistar came to Philadelphia in 1717 from Hilspach, a village in the glass section of Germany. After making a success of brass button-making, he started a works for the manufacture of window glass and various kinds of bottle glass. Then, not knowing the business of glassmaking, he sent to Germany for four expert glass blowers who, in return for teaching the art of glassmaking to Wistar and his son, received one third of the profits. In 1752 Caspar Wistar died and his son, Richard, took over the business. He continued to operate the glass works until the Revolution brought on a depression of the glass business which resulted in financial failure in 1780.
Left, Vase of blown glass, South Jersey type with lily-pad decoration.
Right, emerald-green pitcher made at Saratoga, New York.
       In spite of the fact that Wistar is credited such a prominent place in American glass history, and that until the last decade or so all Early American free-blown glass was termed "Wistarberg," it is now established that very few pieces of Wistar glass have actually been authenticated. Also, there is practically no documental evidence as to the kind of glass made by Wistar. A letter of Governor Franklin written in 1768 includes this statement: "A Glass House was erected about twenty years ago in Salem County (New Jersey) which makes Bottles, and a very coarse Green Glass for windows." In 1769 Richard Wistar inserted an advertisement, a part of which is quoted, in the New York Journal or General Advertiser of August 17:
       "Made at the Subscriber's Glassworks and now on Hand to be sold at his House in Market Street, opposite the Meal Market, either whole-sale or retail, between three and four hundred boxes of Window Glass, consisting of the common sizes, 10 by 12, 9 by 1 1, 8 by 10, 7 by 9, 6 by 8, etc. Lamps Glass or any uncommon Sizes under 16 by 18, are cut upon a short notice. Where also may be had, most Sorts of Bottles, Gallon, Half Gallon, and Quart, full measure Half Gallon Case Bottles, Snuff and Mustard, Receivers and Retorts of various sizes, also electrifying Globes and Tubes, etc."
       In 1708-1781 Jacob Stenger, or Stanger, who had been a workman at Wistar's works, started the second New Jersey glassworks at Glassboro. The products of the Stangers and other South Jersey Eighteenth Century glassworks, whose workmen had been former employees of the Wistar glassworks, were the same in technique, form, color, and decoration as those made at Wistar's Glass Works.
       The by-products of the individual blowers of these factories followed the Venetian technique of blown glass and produced a type of early American glass that continued being made in the New York, New England, Pennsylvania, and Ohio glasshouses as late as the 1870s. Indeed, the old-time blowers and their descendants and apprentices continued in the old techniques, so that many later pieces are indistinguishable in form and technique from similar pieces made a century earlier. It is now conceded by experts that at least 90 per cent of the pieces of early American blown glass in art museums and private collections is of late Eighteenth Century or Nineteenth Century production, and some is as late as 1870. Many of the finest and most interesting pieces of early South Jersey-type glass were blown in small glasshouses of later date. The terms "Early" and "Early American" as applied to American glass are explained in an article in The Magazine Antiques, October, 1926, by George S. McKearin, foremost authority on Early American glass. He says: "When I speak of Early American glass, I refer to type, pattern, decorative technique, and quality of glass, rather than to date. The collector of Americana does not think of the period 1825 to i860 as early and, chronologically, it is not; but in the field of American glass, many of the finest specimens bearing every apparent indication of Eighteenth Century production were blown during the early and mid-Nineteenth Century." Furthermore, the value of early American glass is not determined by the date or the place where it was made, but by the aesthetic qualities such as line, form, color, and beauty of workmanship.
Blown three-mold glass
sunburst pattern, 1820-1825.
       The fundamental character of a large class of American glass is attributed to the influence of the early glasshouses of the Southern New Jersey region. Perhaps a clear definition of the kind of glass made and of the materials from which it was made, as well as an understanding of the process which produced it, will aid in the appreciation and identification of South Jersey-type glass. The basic ingredients for making glass are silica or sand, and alkali such as potash, soda, or lime. Intense heat causes the fusion of the materials. This fusion is aided by the use of bits of old broken glass. Essentially there are three kinds of glass. These are: Green glass or bottle glass which was made of coarse materials together with soda or potash as its principal base; soda glass, usually a clear glass; and lead or flint glass of which the finest wares are made. South Jersey-type glass is made of green glass or bottle glass. It is glass in its natural color, that is, it has not been purified to make it colorless nor is it artificially colored. The natural colors of green glass are an accident of nature caused by the metallic substances in the raw materials. The colors are a variety of greens from light olive to dark green and aquamarine and the various shades of amber from deep golden brown to honey. Bottle glass was the first glass made in America. It was made with potash from wood ashes, and the staple products of the glasshouses that made it were bottles and window glass.
       Yet from this crude coarse glass the skilled glass blowers formed the pitchers, sugar bowls, and graceful footed bowls which we prize today. It was the custom in glasshouses to give the blowers the residue glass at the end of the day and, from this left-over glass, blowers from early Roman days down through the Nineteenth Century formed beautiful free-blown or offhand-blown individual pieces. Thus first of all South Jersey technique is individual and, generally speaking, it is related to the sturdy peasant glass of Europe. The workmen were the designers as well as makers of the glass and they formed the pieces as their own skill, taste, and fancy dictated.
       At all times the ornamentation was governed by the process, and except for the occasional use of the pattern-mold, South Jersey-type glass is free-blown, and shaped and decorated by manipulation. Much of the skill depends on the ability of the workman to shape and manipulate the hot glass while he blows and rotates the piece. A part of the art also consists in keeping the hot glass at the right degree of temperature and reheating it before it becomes too cool. Every touch must be sure. One mistake and the blower must start again. If the glass gets too cold it must be reheated. If the blower waits too long it will explode. The expert glass blower judges the temperature of the glass by the pliability and also by the color.
       The decoration of blown glass is closely related to the process of forming the article. In fact, the decorative devices used are only those possible of being executed while the glass is in a plastic state. Thus we find the same types of decoration on the blown glass of Renaissance Venice as we do on South Jersey-type glass or any glass made by the same process today. The ornamentation of this blown glass was applied and tooled and consists of:
  1.  Prunts and seals which were applied blobs of glass, tooled or molded into motifs such as a leaf or "strawberry" or seal.
  2.  Quilling or trailing which consisted of applied wavy ribbons.
  3.  Rigaree or applied ribbons in parallel lines.
  4.  Threading or rows of superimposed glass on necks and rims.
  5.  Crimping or dents and flutes formed in the foot of an article by a tool.
  6.  Superimposed and tooled decoration or a separate gather of glass tooled into a swirl or drape in the so-called lily-pad.
Left, blue glass sugar bowl, prunt decoration, South Jersey type: early Nine-
teenth Century. Right, blown milk-glass pitcher.
       The most distinctive and characteristic type of decoration used on South Jersey-type glass was the lily-pad decoration. There are three varieties of lily-pad. On the first type slender vertical stems terminate in a bead. This is the earliest type and is usually found on Eighteenth Century or early Nineteenth Century pieces. The second type of lily-pad has broader stems and circular or oval pads. It is found on pieces made about 1830 and later. The third type has a curved stem ending in a leaf-like pad and is of later Nineteenth Century origin. These decorative motifs were used singly or in combination, and some elaborate pieces have three types of decoration, such as a threaded neck, lily-pad on the body, and a crimped foot. Handles, finials, and feet of free-blown articles are of particular interest. The handles of bowls, pitchers, mugs, and most cases the technique of these pieces is finer than the New Jersey lily-pad pieces. Pitchers and bowls of various sizes, both with and without a base, are the articles most often found with lily-pad decoration. New York state glasshouses made compotes and rare handled mugs with lily-pad decoration, and sugar bowls are often found with lily-pad decoration.
       Glassmaking started in New York in the Eighteenth Century. Window glass and bottles and naturally some free-blown individual pieces were made at Albany Glass Works beginning in 1785. Between 1800 and 1870 over forty glass houses were established in New York. Of these a good percentage produced individual free-blown decorative and table wares that are classed as South Jersey-type. While the predominating color is aquamarine, colors vary with different localities and glasshouses. Soon after the War of 1812 glasshouses were established in Woodstock. In 1836 glass blowers from New Jersey were employed at the works in Ellenville, and the individual pieces which they made were of amber, olive-green, and olive-amber bottle glass. They also made "black" glass pieces and the articles included bowls, pitchers, hats, canes, and rolling pins. Two different glasshouses were operated at Sand Lake. The earliest was started in 1806 and stopped operation in 1816. In 1819 another glasshouse opened and the individual pieces blown here include plain bowls, pitchers, and jars in deep green and light green. A glassworks was started in Peterboro in 1809, and by 1820 about sixty men were employed. The articles found today are jars, bowls, bottles, dishes, and decanters in pale green.
Blown dark olive-green glass hat made in
Connecticut in the early Nineteenth Century.
       Another important center of glassmaking in New York was Oneida County. There were three glassworks established in 1809 and 1810. Of these the Mount Vernon Glass Works continued to operate for about forty years, and enough specimens of free-blown glass remain to tell us pretty definitely what kind of glass was made there. Besides free-blown flasks and bottles, they later made historical flasks, such as Success to the Railroad and a Lafayette-Masonic flask, and blown three-mold glass. Dark olive-green and olive-amber bottle glass was made at Saratoga Glass Works between 1844 and 1865. Free-blown pieces include sugar bowls in deep amber, and amber and green pitchers, and some articles with lily-pad decoration. When the works was later moved to Congressville, the output was usually a clear deep green or light green and amber, some of it amber-black.
       At the glasshouses established in the 1830s in northern New York at Redford, Harrisburg, and Redwood, some of the finest lily-pad decorated pieces were made. Bowls, sugar bowls, and pitchers were made in aquamarine glass. The Lockport Glass Works established in 1840 also made lily-pad pieces in artificial blue, aquamarine, and other colors. Pitchers with lily-pad design were made at the Lancaster Glass Works after 1849, usually in aquamarine or a delicate blue.
       In 1840 the Cleveland Glass Works was established, and in 1852 a works was established a few miles away at Bernard's Bay. The output of these works was similar and included pitchers of several sizes, washbowls, bottles, pans, hats, rolling pins, canes, etc. They were blown in light green or aquamarine, and some are found in Victorian forms. Most of the New England glasshouses made plain free-blown articles of South Jersey-type. Threading and lily-pad and other superimposed decoration, however, was rarely used, although lilypad was employed at the Stoddard glasshouse in New Hampshire, at New London, Connecticut, and Burlington, Vermont, and possibly Keene, New Hampshire. In New Hampshire free-blown glass was blown at Keene, Lyndeboro, Stoddard, Lake Dunmore, and Suncook. In general these factories produced aquamarine, light green, and yellow-green pieces — some with lily-pad designs. The best-known glasshouses are the factory at Keene and those at Stoddard which were established after 1842. Stoddard is famous for a beautiful blood-amber color, but all types of amber and olive-green were made. Blood-amber was also made at Westford and Willington, Connecticut. At Coventry, Connecticut, pitchers and jars were made in amber and olive-green.
Hand-blown amber glass pitcher with loopings of opaque
white. Nineteenth Century.
       The best-known glassworks in Connecticut was the Pitkin Glass Works which was in operation from 1783 to 1830. This works is well known for its bottles and flasks and other pieces which were blown in patterned flask molds and expanded. The molds used were ribbed, and the patterns were of vertical, diagonal, and swirled ribbing. The colors used were ambers, from yellow to red amber, and olive-greens. Articles included large carboy jugs, "Ludlow" chestnut bottles, plain jars, inkwells, and Pitkin flasks of various sizes with swirled patterned ribbings. There were also several glasshouses established in Vermont in the Nineteenth Century. Of these the Champlain Glass Company and the Lake Dunmore Glass Works prospered. While the usual run of South Jersey-type free-blown pieces were not made at Sandwich and New England Glass Company houses, such articles as pitchers and covered sugar bowls with superimposed decoration are found, and such fancy articles as banks decorated with loopings and ribbons and applied prunts were made and are among the rare free-blown pieces. One of the richest sources for South Jersey-type glass were the Nineteenth Century glasshouses of Ohio. They made plain free-blown pitchers, bowls, jugs, inkwells, salts, and sugar bowls in amber, olive-greens, and aquamarines.
       Besides the general run of articles in free-blown glass there were workman's whimsies which included blown hats of various types, canes, rolling pins, and toys. These were made at all glassworks. Another article common to all bottle glassworks was the witch ball. The English witch ball was a hollow ball of mottled glass which was hung in the cottage window to ward off witches. They were made in the Bristol glass district of England. Those made in American glasshouses were used as covers for pitchers, jars, and vases and were made in all sizes and in various colors. Pickles and preserve jars were made at most glasshouses, including the Gothic paneled light green pickle jar which has been reproduced today.
       The collector of South Jersey-type glass must take pleasure in the artistic values of line, form, and color. Decoration is subordinated to form, and a piece should be judged by its beauty of line and shape, but perhaps the greatest pleasure is to be derived from color. A similarity between the glass of various sections of the country is noted. It is due not only to the identical free-blown technique used at all glassworks, but also to the migration of workmen. Some of the best-known glass blowers actually worked in several different factories, but without exception their descendants or apprentices of the early New Jersey glassworks were the glass blowers in the New York and New England glassworks a few years later, and similar connections existed between the east coast glassworks and those of the Midwest. by McClinton

Wednesday, February 24, 2016

"Cluden Mill" by Grosvenor Thomas

Thomas was an Australian painter of late Impressionism and member of the Glasgow Boys.
        George Grosvenor Thomas was born in 1856, Sydney , New South Wales and died in † 1923 in London. He was an Australian painter of late Impressionism and member of the Glasgow Boys , a group of artists from the 19th and early 20th centuries. He operated mainly landscape painting.
       As a young man he left his homeland, embarked for England and settled in 1885/6 Glasgow down. There he joined the Glasgow Boys, a group of artists from the realism of the French Barbizon school was significantly influenced and thus made ​​known to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in Scotland. Object of their genre painting were next designs from Greater Glasgow mainly rural scenes. Thomas painted mainly landscapes and floral still lifes in watercolor - and oil paints . His work has been strongly influenced by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Charles-François Daubigny. Thomas was his works repeatedly at the Royal Academy of Arts , Royal Scottish Academy and the Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolor exhibit. In Munich and Dresden he won a gold medal each. In 1892 he was elected a member of the Royal Scottish Society of Painters in Watercolor. Thomas eventually moved to London and traveled a lot. 1923 died Thomas in London.

"A Crown" by Sir L. Alma-Tadema

"A Crown" by Tadema, restored by Kathy Grimm
       Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema  born Lourens Alma Tadema on the 8th of January 1836, died on the 25th of June 1912 was a Dutch painter of special British citizenship.
       Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands, and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium, he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there. A classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the luxury and decadence of the Roman Empire, with languorous figures set in fabulous marbled interiors or against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean Sea and sky.
       Though admired during his lifetime for his draftsmanship and depictions of Classical antiquity, his work fell into disrepute after his death, and only since the 1960s has it been re-evaluated for its importance within nineteenth-century English art. Read more...

Artist George Charles Aid

Artist George Charles Aid.
       George Charles Aid born in 1872 and died in 1938, studied in the St. Louis School of Fine Art. He worked as a staff artist for local newspapers before moving to Paris to further his education as a fine engraver and painter.
       "Practically from the beginning of his career as an etcher, Mr. Aid has had the attention and the encouragement of the public — the public which discriminates, and which enjoys picturesque and historic scenes simply and graphically placed by a skilled hand onto the copper plate.
       Born about thirty-five years ago in Quincy, Illinois, the artist received his earliest artistic training at the St. Louis School of Fine Arts. Like most young artists, he drifted in due course to Paris, where he continued his studies under the teachings of Jean Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant.
       His painted canvases exhibited at the Paris Salon and at many important exhibitions in the United States have attracted attention by their sterling merit; but it is to his fame as an etcher that we desire to call attention at the present time.
       His etchings as well as his paintings have been admitted to the Salon, and in 1904 he received the award of a silver medal in the Department of Fine Arts at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis.
       In 1906 a selection of his etchings was shown in an exhibition made by four young American artists at the American Art Association in Paris.
       Since that time, however, the artist has been the recipient of additional honors, proving that interest and enthusiasm in the work he is producing have not abated.
       Mr. Aid always tells his story clearly, forcefully and convincingly.
       He excels in composition. His plates always form a picture harmonious and pleasing, and this, added to the fact that he prints his own proofs, thereby assuring precisely the effect desired, accounts, in large measure, for his popularity.
       His subjects cover a fairly large area — scenes in Granada, Holland, Belgium, Venice, Florence, France, and of course Paris.
       Some of his most successful plates are those etched by the artist in the chateau country of the Loire — Blois, Amboise,
       Chenonceau, Azay-le-rideau and other famous places, which have been rendered with charm and insight.
       He has rendered the architecture of the chateaux faithfully, while not neglecting to impart the suggestion of romance which clings about these historic homes of Old France.
       His newer plates including scenes in Rouen, Beauvais, Carcassonne, Albi, and also the new Italian ones of San Remo and other places, have all the characteristics of his former prints, with the added strength that experience and study always bring to the artist who is ever striving to conquer new problems." H. H. Tolerton

Tuesday, February 23, 2016

"Herbaceous Border at Knole Kent" by Edith Helena Adie

"An Elegant Couple" by Eglon Hendrik van der Neer

       Hendrik van der Neer was born at Amsterdam in 1635 or 1636 and died at Diisseldorf, May 3, 1703. He was a pupil of his father, Aert van der Neer, and of Jacob van Loo. He spent some time in France; lived at Rotterdam from 1663 to 1679, at Brussels from 1671 to 1690, and then settled at Diisseldorf, where he was court painter to the Elector Palatine. He is represented in the National Museum at Amsterdam and in other prominent collections.

"What's O'Clock" by E. A. Hornel

        Edward Atkinson Hornel born in 1864 and died in 1933, was a Scottish painter of landscapes, flowers, and foliage, with children. He was a cousin of James Hornel.
       He was born in Bacchus Marsh, Victoria Australia, on 17 July 1864 of Scottish parents, and he was brought up and lived practically all his life in Scotland after his family moved back to Kirkcudbright in 1866. He studied for three years at the art school at Edinburgh, and for two years at Antwerp under Professor Verlat. Returning from Antwerp in 1885, he met George Henry and associated himself with the Glasgow Boys. Read more...

Monday, February 22, 2016

Etchings by Charles W. Dahlgreen

Dahlgreen sketching out of doors.
       That the impulse to find expression for ideas awakened by the contemplation of beauty is inherent in the nature of the born artist, and will, sooner or later, "find a way," is wonderfully demonstrated in the career of Charles W. Dahlgreen.
       Born in Chicago in 1864, at an early age he manifested a leaning toward art, and at his first opportunity, when he was twenty-two years of age, he went to Europe, entering the Arts and Crafts School at Diisseldorf, Germany.
       There he remained about one year and a half, and during that period took a first prize for one of his paintings, a study of still life.
       Coming back to Chicago, the untoward circumstances of his life were such that he was compelled to abandon an art career and devote himself to business.
       "But," says the artist, "after sixteen years, during which time I had no opportunity to study or work on artistic lines, I went, one day, up into the attic and got down my old palette, on which I even found some of the old paint encrusted by time. I was then forty years of age and I started my art career all over again, studying for the year 1904 with John Johansen and Charles Francis Browne."
       The next year the artist entered the Art Institute of Chicago, and after a period of study in that institution he went abroad for a second time, spending a year of travel and study in Ger- many, Holland, France, and Italy.
       Mr. Dahlgreen 's paintings as well as his etchings have been shown in many European and American cities, and although he first began to etch in 1908, he developed so rapidly his own system of landscape etching that he exhibited a selection of his prints in the Paris Salon of 1909.
       The artist's etched work consists entirely of landscape subjects, and his style, though different from that of other artists who have etched similar scenes, has poetic feeling and a composition always pleasing. Views of the open country, frequently with masses of rolling white cloud which give an atmosphere of great spaces, are among his favorite themes. "A Bit of Country Road," "After a Spring Rain," "A Poem" are some of his happiest efforts, and in the somewhat new experiment of printing his etchings in colors he has achieved some very clever work.
       Constantly striving after a higher ideal and full of enthusiasm, we are confident that in the future a large measure of success and fame will come to the artist. H. H. Tolerton - 1913
"Heatherlands" by Dahlgreen
"On A Country Road" by Dahlgreen

"The Song of The Lark" by Jules Breton

       Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton ( May 1. 1827 – July 5. 1906) was a 19th-century French Realist painter. His paintings are heavily influenced by the French countryside and his absorption of traditional methods of painting helped make Jules Breton one of the primary transmitters of the beauty and idyllic vision of rural existence.
       Breton was born on 1 May 1827 in Courrières, a small Pas-de-Calais village. His father, Marie-Louis Breton, supervised land for a wealthy landowner. His mother died when Jules was 4 and he was brought up by his father. Other family members who lived in the same house were his maternal grandmother and his uncle Boniface Breton. A respect for tradition, a love of the land and for his native region remained central to his art throughout his life and provided the artist with many scenes for his Salon compositions. Read more...